From about tothe Ottoman Empire ruled much of the region. The League of Nations issued a British mandate for Palestine—a document that gave Britain the responsibility of establishing a Jewish national homeland in Palestine—which went into effect in Jewish leaders accepted the plan, but many Palestinian Arabs vehemently opposed it.
Geography and Early History of Israel and Palestine The land variously called Israel and Palestine is a small, 10, square miles at present land at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. During its long history, its area, population and ownership varied greatly.
The present state of Israel occupies all the land from the Jordan river to the Mediterranean ocean, bounded by Egypt in the south, Lebanon in the north, and Jordan in the East. The remainder is divided between land occupied by Israel since the 6-day war and the autonomous regions under the control of the Palestinian autonomy.
Palestine has been settled continuously for tens of thousands of years. Fossil remains have been found of Homo Erectus, Neanderthal and transitional types between Neanderthal and modern man.
Archeologists have found hybrid Emmer wheat at Jericho dating from before 8, B. Amorites, Canaanites, and other Semitic peoples related to the Phoenicians of Tyre entered the area about B.
The area became known as the Land of Canaan. Some time between about and B. Canaan was settled by different tribes including Semitic peoples, Hittites, and later Philistines, peoples of the sea who are thought to have arrived from Mycenae, or to be part of the ancient Greek peoples that also settled Mycenae.
According to the Bible, Moses led the Israelites, or a portion of them, out of Egypt. Under Joshua, they conquered the tribes and city states of Canaan. Based on biblical traditions, it is estimated that king David conquered Jerusalem about B.
Jerusalem remained the center of Jewish sovereignty and of Jewish worship whenever the Jews exercised sovereignty over the country in the subsequent period, up to the Jewish revolt in AD.
The Babylonians conquered Judea or Judah around B.
About 50 years later, the Persian king Cyrus conquered Babylonia. Cyrus allowed a group of Jews from Babylonia to rebuild Jerusalem and settle in it. However, a large number of Jews remained in Babylonia, forming the first Jewish Diaspora.
After the reestablishment of a Jewish state or protectorate, the Babylonian exiles maintained contact with authorities there. The Persians ruled the land from about to B. Alexander the Great then conquered the Persian Empire. One of these generals, Seleucus, founded a dynasty that gained control of much of Palestine about B.
At first, the new rulers, called Seleucids, allowed the practice of Judaism. But later, one of the kings, Antiochus IV, tried to prohibit it. The kingdom received Roman "protection" when Judah Maccabee was made a "friend of the Roman senate and people" in B.
Judea had become a client state of Rome. Initially it was ruled by the client Herodian dynasty. The land was divided into districts of Judea, Galilee, Peraea and a small trans-Jordanian section, each of which eventually came under direct Roman control.
The Romans called the large central area of the land, which included Jerusalem, Judea. Roman rulers put down Jewish revolts in about A. The Romans named the area Palaestina, at about this time.
However, Jewish communities continued to exist, primarily in the Galilee, the northernmost part of Palestine. Palestine was governed by the Roman Empire until the fourth century A. In time, Christianity spread to most of Palestine.
The population consisted of Jewish converts to Christianity and paganism, peoples imported by the Romans, and others who had probably inhabited Palestine continuously.
During the seventh century A. Jerusalem was conquered about by the Caliph Umar Omar who gave his protection to its inhabitants. The rulers allowed Christians and Jews to keep their religions. However, most of the local population gradually accepted Islam and the Arab-Islamic culture of their rulers.
The al-Aqsa mosque was built on the site generally regarded as the area of the Jewish temples. The Seljuk Turks conquered Jerusalem inbut their rule in Palestine lasted less than 30 years.
Initially they were replaced by the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. The Fatimids took advantage of the Seljuk struggles with the Christian crusaders.Though the definite origins of the word Palestine have been debated for years and are still not known for sure, the name is believed to be derived from the Egyptian and Hebrew word peleshet.
Roughly translated to mean rolling or migratory, the term was used to describe the inhabitants of the land to the northeast of Egypt - the Philistines. The . The war led to the creation of the state of Israel, the fragmentation of Palestine, and to a conflict which has raged across the intervening sixty years.
Palestine continued to be a war-torn and much-contested region up through World War II when, afterwards, the United Nations declared the area the State of Israel and established it as a homeland for the Jewish people.
Other articles where History of Palestine is discussed: Palestine: History: The Paleolithic Period (Old Stone Age) in Palestine was first fully examined by the British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod in her excavations of caves on the slopes of Mount Carmel in – The finds showed that at that.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
Situated at a strategic point between Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the birthplace of . Palestine was a common name used until to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. In its history, the Assyrian, Babylonian, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman empires have controlled Palestine at one time or another.