Note added March Below is the article I wrote 6 years ago, but the evidence has changed in the interim, and my thinking has become more nuanced. My thinking was based on theory and epidemiology.
In the Islamic Golden Age of the 8th to the 13th centuries, philosophers explored ideas about natural history. These ideas included transmutation from non-living to living: Conway Zirklewriting about the history of natural selection insaid that an excerpt from this work was the only relevant passage he had found from an Arabian scholar.
He provided a quotation describing the struggle for existence, citing a Spanish translation of this work: Strong animals cannot escape being devoured by other animals stronger than they. And in this respect, men do not differ from animals, some with respect to others, although they do not arrive at the same extremes.
In short, God has disposed some human beings as a cause of life for others, and likewise, he has disposed the latter as a cause of the death of the former. It shows nexuses between causes and things caused, combinations of some parts of creation with others, and transformations of some existent things into others, in a pattern that is both remarkable and endless.
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award. Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers. acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large. The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
The essences at the end of each particular stage of the worlds are by nature prepared to be transformed into the essence adjacent to them, either above or below them. This is the case with the simple material elements; it is the case with palms and vines, which constitute the last stage of plants, in their relation to snails and shellfish, which constitute the lowest stage of animals.
It is also the case with monkeys, creatures combining in themselves cleverness and perception, in their relation to man, the being who has the ability to think and to reflect. The preparedness for transformation that exists on either side, at each stage of the worlds, is meant when we speak about their connection.
Great chain of being and Natural theology Drawing of the great chain of being from Rhetorica Christiana English: However, contact with the Islamic worldwhere Greek manuscripts were preserved and expanded, soon led to a massive spate of Latin translations in the 12th century.
Europeans were re-introduced to the works of Plato and Aristotle, as well as to Islamic thought. Christian thinkers of the scholastic school, in particular Peter Abelard — and Thomas Aquinas —combined Aristotelian classification with Plato's ideas of the goodness of God, and of all potential life forms being present in a perfect creation, to organize all inanimate, animate, and spiritual beings into a huge interconnected system: As the universe was ultimately perfect, the great chain of being was also perfect.
There were no empty links in the chain, and no link was represented by more than one species. Therefore, no species could ever move from one position to another.
Thus, in this Christianized version of Plato's perfect universe, species could never change, but remained forever fixed, in accordance with the text of the Book of Genesis.
For humans to forget their position was seen as sinful, whether they behaved like lower animals or aspired to a higher station than was given them by their Creator. It formed a part of the argument from design presented by natural theology.
As a classification system, it became the major organizing principle and foundation of the emerging science of biology in the 17th and 18th centuries. Thomas Aquinas While Christian theologians held that the natural world was part of an unchanging designed hierarchy, some theologians speculated that the world might have developed through natural processes.
Thomas Aquinas went even farther than Augustine of Hippo in arguing that scriptural texts like Genesis should not be interpreted in a literal way that conflicted with or constrained what natural philosophers learned about the workings of the natural world.
He saw that the autonomy of nature was a sign of God's goodness, and detected no conflict between a divinely created universe and the idea that the universe had developed over time through natural mechanisms. Aquinas rather held that: It is as if the shipbuilder were able to give to timbers that by which they would move themselves to take the form of a ship.
Evolutionary ideas of the Renaissance and Enlightenment Pierre Belon compared the skeletons of humans left and birds right in his L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux English: He wrote of natural modifications occurring during reproduction and accumulating over the course of many generations, producing races and even new species, a description that anticipated in general terms the concept of natural selection.
In the late 17th century, Ray had given the first formal definition of a biological species, which he described as being characterized by essential unchanging features, and stated the seed of one species could never give rise to another.
The term gradually gained a more general meaning of growth or progressive development. For example, he believed that lions, tigers, leopards and house cats might all have a common ancestor. He further speculated that the or so species of mammals then known might have descended from as few as 38 original animal forms.
Buffon's evolutionary ideas were limited; he believed each of the original forms had arisen through spontaneous generation and that each was shaped by "internal moulds" that limited the amount of change.
History of paleontology InGeorges Cuvier published his findings on the differences between living elephants and those found in the fossil record.
|ASMscience | EcoSal Plus||Schimper would name these bodies as "chloroplastids" Chloroplastiden.|
|Cancer Death — Causes & Prevention||Analytic pressure-volume diagrams are utilized to illustrate the effects of gasoline engine design on performance and combustion requirements. Topics discussed include design, construction, inspection techniques and servicing of the internal combustion engine and its components.|
His analysis identified mammoths and mastodons as distinct species, different from any living animal, and effectively ended a long-running debate over whether a species could become extinct. Independently, inCuvier and Alexandre Brongniart published an influential study of the geologic history of the region around Paris, based on the stratigraphic succession of rock layers.
These works helped establish the antiquity of the Earth. Knowledge of the fossil record continued to advance rapidly during the first few decades of the 19th century.The nucleolus is that mysterious round structure we are all taught to draw inside the nucleus of a cell.
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The alga Cyanophora, a glaucophyte, is thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast. The glaucophyte chloroplast group is the smallest of the three primary chloroplast lineages, being found in only 13 species, and is thought to be the one that branched off the earliest.
Glaucophytes have chloroplasts that retain a peptidoglycan wall between their double membranes, like. More Less Abstract: André Lwoff, Jacques Monod, and François Jacob, the leaders of the French school of molecular biology, greatly contributed between and to its development and triumph.
Telomere biology has the potential to extend human life span, to dramatically lower rates of the great remaining killer diseases: heart disease, stroke, and Alzheimer’s. All three diseases increase exponentially with age, and their toll will be slashed as we we learn how to address the body’s aging clocks.
You would think that the Nobel Prize might .