HPV vaccination in EU countries: Recent evidence on use of HPV vaccines in boys and men and on the efficacy of a two dose schedule may warrant to significant policy changes in the near future.
Received Mar 23; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract The potential impact on health of diets rich in free sugars, and particularly fructose, is of major concern. The focus of this review is the impact of these sugars on insulin resistance and obesity, and the associated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Much of the concern is focussed on specific metabolic effects of fructose, which are argued to lead to increased fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle with subsequent insulin resistance and increased risk of diabetes.
However, much of the evidence underpinning these arguments is based on animal studies involving very large intakes of the free sugars. In particular, the most marked effects are observed when a high sugars intake is accompanied by an excess energy intake.
This does not mean that a high intake of free sugars does not have any detrimental impact on health, but rather that such an effect seems more likely to be a result of the high sugars intake increasing the chances of an excessive energy intake rather than it leading to a direct detrimental effect on metabolism.
Sugars, Sucrose, Fructose, Glucose, HFCS, Insulin resistance, Diabetes mellitus Introduction There is increasing interest in the possibility that a high intake of refined sugars is associated with detrimental effects on metabolism that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.
Some of the evidence underpinning these concerns is derived from cross-sectional surveys or ecological observations, but there are also prospective cohort studies and controlled intervention trials which have addressed this issue. Basic aspects of dietary carbohydrates, insulin action and insulin resistance Dietary carbohydrates include the monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides chain length 3—9 moleculespolysaccharides and fibre.
The monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose, and the major disaccharides are sucrose glucose plus fructoselactose glucose and galactose and maltose 2 glucose molecules. The polysaccharide category represents the starches, which are made up of glucose polymers with variation in the location and number of cross-linkages between the molecules producing different sub-categories of starches.
The mono- and disaccharides are normally combined into the collective category of sugars. The main carbohydrate contributors to dietary energy intake are the sugars and starches. The control of carbohydrate metabolism is dependent on appropriate levels of insulin secretion and insulin action.
For the purposes of the present overview, the issues around insulin secretion particularly as it relates to type 2 DM will not be considered. However, the impact of dietary carbohydrates or total energy intake on insulin action is worthy of consideration.
The major concern at present is focussed on dietary sugars, and whether an excessive intake of them as a proportion of total carbohydrate can lead to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance and lead to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus DM.
Although most of the attention has been focussed on sucrose and fructose, many studies have failed to directly compare fructose and glucose in randomised trials, and when direct comparisons have been made, it is clear that any impact on health is more likely to be a sugars-related effect than specifically due to fructose see later.
This short review will consider this issue in greater detail and assess the potential problems of sugars in relation to insulin resistance and risk of type 2 DM.
The present article is a narrative review based on the systematic reviews undertaken to inform the SACN Review of Carbohydrates and Health. One of the major issues in this area of research is the short-term nature of many of the investigations, especially studies involving alteration of the carbohydrate composition of the diet or the types of sugars being consumed.
Clearly the long-term health effects of such interventions can only be speculated about, but such studies do provide useful information on potential mechanisms of effects of carbohydrates on health.Recent evidence on use of HPV vaccines in boys and men and on the efficacy of a two dose schedule may warrant to significant policy changes in the near future.
Vaccination in boys/men. HPV can infect both females and males. Objectives Based on data developed from reviews of medical records of patients treated in New York hospitals, the Institute of Medicine estimated that up to 98, Americans die each year from medical leslutinsduphoenix.com basis of this estimate is nearly 3 decades old; herein, an updated estimate is developed from modern studies published from to The report "A new definition of fuel poverty in Scotland - A review of recent evidence" sets out the review panel's findings and a series of evidence based recommendations with a clear aim of making improvements to the current fuel poverty definition.
As part of this review, this article will provide a brief summary of the book, will show the differences between the old and new editions, will show strengths and weaknesses of the book, and will provide the benefits of having the book in your library.
Summary of Evidence That Demands a Verdict (Brian Chilton). The present paper critically reviews the recent evidence base in order to address this question.
The question has relevance for a variety of strategic areas, including policies related to energy efficiency, fuel poverty, climate change, health, housing and social justice (Thomson et al., ).
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A review of recent evidence in human studies of n-3 and n-6 PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depressive disorders: does the ratio really matter? All authors Stefano Marventano, Paulina Kolacz, Sabrina Castellano, Fabio Galvano, Silvio Buscemi, Antonio Mistretta & Giuseppe Grosso. A Review of Recent Empirical Evidence Web Version: August Authors: Samira Salem and Faina Rozental1 Abstract Over the last two decades, labor standards have become a major issue in international trade. Three developments mark the rise of this issue: first. Recent evidence on use of HPV vaccines in boys and men and on the efficacy of a two dose schedule may warrant to significant policy changes in the near future. Vaccination in boys/men. HPV can infect both females and males.