Nicholas II, the last tsar of Russia, had neither the qualities or the desire to rule Imperial Russia. The young Nicholas could not have been less like his father: Those who met the young Tsarevich described him as pleasant and likeable but otherwise unremarkable — hardly the traits of a man ordained by God to rule Russia. As a youth Nicholas had joined the imperial cavalry and attained the rank of colonel.
Olga Carlovna Albrecht 10 July — 20 Januarymarried on 12 April Maxime von Reutern 22 June — 28 Marchand had issue according to Ferrand, there is a tradition that Nicholas I was father of: Count Constantin Kleinmichel, who had numerous issue; but even Ferrand apparently does not consider this proven according to Ferrand, Nicholas I may have been father of: Natalia Wodimova —married to Carl Baggehufvudt, and had numerous issue; but even Ferrand apparently does not consider this proven by Barbara Nelidova?
The accession of Nicholas I was marred by a demonstration of young Imperial Army officers and other liberal-minded citizens. This demonstration was an attempt to force the government to accept a constitution and a representative form of government.
Nicholas ordered the army out to smash the demonstration. The "uprising" was quickly put down and became known as the Decembrist Revolt. Having experienced the trauma of the Decembrist Revolt on the very first day of his reign, Nicholas I was determined to restrain Russian society.
The Third Section of the Imperial Chancellery ran a huge network of spies and informers with the help of Gendarmes. The government exercised censorship and other forms of control over education, publishing, and all manifestations of public life.
An intensely militaristic man, Nicholas regarded the Army as the best and greatest institution in Russia and as a model for society, saying: All things flow logically from one another.
No one here commands without first learning to obey. No one rises above anyone else except through a clearly defined system. Everything is subordinated to a single, defined goal and everything has its precise designations. That is why I shall always hold the title of soldier in the highest esteem.
I regard human life as service because everybody must serve. The most notorious case was Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikova competent brigade commander in the Imperial Army who proved himself out of his depth as a Navy minister.
Petersburg and the suburban residence of Tsarskoye Selo. The second was the Saint Petersburg — Moscow Railwaybuilt in — Nevertheless, by there were only miles of Russian railways.
The people were to show loyalty to the unrestricted authority of the tsarto the traditions of the Russian Orthodox Churchand to the Russian language. These romantic and conservative principles outlined by Uvarov were also espoused by Vasily Zhukovskyone of the tutors of the Grand Duke Alexander.
By order of the Tsar, Shevchenko was kept under strict surveillance and prevented from writing or painting. Nicholas disliked serfdom and toyed with the idea of abolishing it in Russia, but declined to do so for reasons of state.
He feared the aristocracy and believed they might turn against him if he abolished serfdom. However, he did make some efforts to improve the lot of the Crown Serfs serfs owned by the government with the help of his minister Pavel Kiselyov. During most of his reign he tried to increase his control over the landowners and other influential groups in Russia.
InNicholas restricted the votes in the Noble Assembly to those with over serfs, leaving 21, voters. One group, the westernizersbelieved that Russia remained backward and primitive and could progress only through more Europeanization.
Another group, the Slavophilesenthusiastically favored the Slavs and their culture and customs, and had a distaste for westerners and their culture and customs. Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, painted by George Dawe, The Slavophiles viewed Slavic philosophy as a source of wholeness in Russia and were sceptical of Western rationalism and materialism.
Some of them believed that the Russian peasant commune, or Miroffered an attractive alternative to Western capitalism and could make Russia a potential social and moral savior, thus representing a form of Russian messianism.
However the ministry of education had a policy of closing philosophy faculties because of possible harmful effects.
He wanted to neutralize the threat of foreign ideas and what he ridiculed as "pseudo-knowledge. Their main mission was to train a loyal, athletic, masculinized senior bureaucracy that avoided the effeminacy of office work.A Brief History.
On May 11, , while paying a State visit to Lake Biwa, Otsu, Japan, heir to the throne of the Russian Empire Tsesarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich (the future Czar Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia) was attacked with a sword by one of the Japanese policemen escorting him, wounding the .
Russia history A short overview of the Russian history. During the reign of Alexander I and defection of the Petrograd garrison launched the revolution. Nicholas II was forced to abdicate on March 15, , and he and his family were killed by revolutionists on July 16, A provisional government under the successive premierships of.
NICHOLAS II ( – ), last emperor of Russia.. The future Nicholas II was born at Tsarskoe Selo in May , the first child of the heir to the Russian throne, Alexander Alexandrovich, and his Danish-born wife, Maria Fedorovna. Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule.
His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia’s role in World War I led to his abdication and leslutinsduphoenix.com: May 06, During most of his reign he tried to increase his control over the landowners and other influential groups in Russia.
the meaning of Russian history, and the future of Russia.
One group, "Administration of Justice under Nicholas I of Russia." American Slavic and East European Review (): – in JSTOR; Lincoln, W. Bruce. Nicholas I: Nicholas I, Russian emperor (–55), often considered the personification of classic autocracy.
For his reactionary policies, he has been called the emperor who froze Russia for 30 years. Learn more about the life and significance of Tsar Nicholas I in this article.